Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Tonicity, Isotonic solutions, Hypotonic solutions, Hypertonic solutions, Interface, Surface, Absorption, Adsorption, Surface tension, Solubilization, Polymorphism

Tonicity is measure of the osmotic pressure of two solutions separated by a semi permeable membrane.

Isotonic solutions:
Two solutions are said to be iso-osmotic or isotonic if they exert the same osmotic pressure when separated by a semi permeable membrane.
Example: 0.9 % solutions of NaCl is said to be isotonic solutions.

Hypotonic solutions:
Solutions with osmotic pressure lower than that of the body fluids or of 0.9% NaCl solution are called hypotonic solution.

Hypertonic solutions:
Those solutions having a higher osmotic pressure than the body fluids or of 0.9% NaCl solutions are called hypertonic solution.

The boundary between two phases is generally described as an interface.

When one of the phases is a gas or a vapor and the other a liquid or solid, the outer space of the phases which is contacted or exposed with the outer space of other phases is called surface of that phase.

Absorption is the incorporation of a substance in one state into another of a different state.

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, biomolecules or molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solid particles to a surface.

Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.

The process by which water insoluble or partly soluble substances are brought into aqueous solution by incorporation into micelles is termed as solubilization.

Polymorphism is the ability of a compound(or element) to crystallize as more than one distinct crystalline species with different internal lattices.
Polymorphism (or crystal polymorphism) is a phenomenon related to the solid state; it is the ability of a compound in the solid state to exist in different crystalline forms having the same chemical composition. Substances that exist in a non-crystalline solid state are said to be amorphous.

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