Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Tonicity, Isotonic solutions, Hypotonic solutions, Hypertonic solutions, Interface, Surface, Absorption, Adsorption, Surface tension, Solubilization, Polymorphism



Tonicity:
Tonicity is measure of the osmotic pressure of two solutions separated by a semi permeable membrane.

Isotonic solutions:
Two solutions are said to be iso-osmotic or isotonic if they exert the same osmotic pressure when separated by a semi permeable membrane.
Example: 0.9 % solutions of NaCl is said to be isotonic solutions.

Hypotonic solutions:
Solutions with osmotic pressure lower than that of the body fluids or of 0.9% NaCl solution are called hypotonic solution.

Hypertonic solutions:
Those solutions having a higher osmotic pressure than the body fluids or of 0.9% NaCl solutions are called hypertonic solution.

Interface:
The boundary between two phases is generally described as an interface.

Surface:
When one of the phases is a gas or a vapor and the other a liquid or solid, the outer space of the phases which is contacted or exposed with the outer space of other phases is called surface of that phase.

Absorption:
Absorption is the incorporation of a substance in one state into another of a different state.

Adsorption:
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, biomolecules or molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solid particles to a surface.

Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force.

Solubilization:
The process by which water insoluble or partly soluble substances are brought into aqueous solution by incorporation into micelles is termed as solubilization.

Polymorphism:
Polymorphism is the ability of a compound(or element) to crystallize as more than one distinct crystalline species with different internal lattices.
or
Polymorphism (or crystal polymorphism) is a phenomenon related to the solid state; it is the ability of a compound in the solid state to exist in different crystalline forms having the same chemical composition. Substances that exist in a non-crystalline solid state are said to be amorphous.

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